We have all seen mistakes in documents, newspapers or magazines – almost everywhere these days. We have probably mentally corrected these errors – replacing words that are missing, rearranging words that are out of place or even changing an affirmative statement to a negative statement where the intention is obvious.
Despite the best of intentions, similar errors can occur in condominium documents – no matter how often the document might be proof-read. But how should these errors be corrected? The Condominium Act, 1998 (the “Act”) allows an error or inconsistency that is apparent on the face of a declaration to be corrected by the Land Registrar. This correction is not effective until the amended declaration is registered.
What about obvious errors in condominium bylaws? Do such errors require the preparation of a new by-law and a meeting of the owners (to approve the by-law)?
In our view, clear or obvious errors in a by-law can be corrected without returning to the owners for another vote. A new by-law must of course be prepared and registered (in order to correct the error), but it’s our view that this can, and should, be done without a further vote of the owners.
Here’s our reasoning: A flawed or incorrect by-law does not reflect the true wishes of the owners (as already expressed by vote in favour of the by-law). So, our view is that a correcting by-law must be registered to reflect the vote that has already taken place.
What may qualify as an “obvious or clear error” will depend upon the particular circumstances.
In a recent decision, the Ontario Court of Appeal has made it very clear that a Notice of Lien must be accurate. Here’s my summary of the decision from Condo Cases Across Canada, which I author for publication by the Canadian Condominium Institute (CCI) National.
York Condominium Corporation No. 82 v. Bujold (Ontario Court of Appeal) April 3, 2013
Lien discharged because of insufficient notice of lien
The corporation registered a lien on September 25, 2007, covering arrears from June 1, 2007. The owner challenged the validity of the lien. The Court said that “the registration on September 25 meant that the liens that arose after June 25 were valid, namely, the liens relating to defaults on July 1, August 1, and September 1.” “Delayed registration does not invalidate all liens, just those that arose from defaults that occurred more than three months before the registration.”
The Court of Appeal accordingly said that the lien was “potentially valid” for any amounts owing after June 25, 2007. The Court said, however, that the corporation’s notice(s) of lien had to be accurate in that the notice(s) had to disclose the full amount secured by the lien to be registered. [Once registered, the lien secures all subsequent arrears. But the notice(s) must disclose the full amount secured by the lien as at the anticipated registration date.] In this case, the notice of lien was invalid. Therefore, for different reasons, the Court of Appeal upheld the lower Court’s order that the lien be discharged.
When dealing with damage to a condominium property, whether to the common elements or to standard unit(s), the first question is: “Is this insured damage?” If the answer to this question is “yes”, special insurance principles apply.
By “insured damage”, I mean damage of a sort that is covered by the condominium corporation’s property insurance policy, if one ignores the deductible. [I use the term “deductible loss” to describe insured damage falling within the deductible.]
Sections 99 (1) and (2) of the Condominium Act list perils that must be covered by the corporation’s insurance. But the insurance policy can, and normally does, provide additional coverage.
If you conclude that damage is “insured damage”, the following principles apply:
- An owner can never be held responsible for any insured damage that is covered by the corporation’s policy. This is because the corporation’s policy is for the corporation and for all owners.
- Insured damage is still insured damage if the corporation decides not to make an insurance claim. But if the corporation decides not to make an insurance claim, the corporation must pay any amount that would have been paid by the insurer if a claim were made.
- Responsibility for the deductible loss is determined under Section 105 of the Condominium Act (including any insurance deductibles by-law passed by the corporation).
Again, these principles only apply in the case of “insured damage”. In order to determine whether or not particular damage is “insured damage”, you could:
- Ask the corporation’s insurer (even if no insurance claim is being submitted). [You could begin by asking the question to the broker. The broker may be able to answer, or the broker may ask the insurer, and the insurer may have an adjuster investigate and respond.]
- Review the insurance policy or have the corporation’s legal counsel review the policy.
Proxies for the election of condo board directors can sometimes be confusing. We often recommend using a “ranking proxy” that ranks the candidates in the signatory’s order of preference.
Proxies can be tricky to manage for the following reasons:
- Section 52 (5) of the Condominium Act says that the proxy form must indicate the candidate(s) for whom the signatory is voting. In other words; the signatory’s election choices must be made at the time the proxy is signed.
- There may be more than one election, with different participating voters, at the meeting. For example, there may be one election, pursuant to Section 51 (6) of the Condominium Act, in which only the owners who occupy their units can vote, and there may be another election at the same meeting, in which all owners can vote.
- The candidates may not be the same in each election.
- One or more candidates may “drop out of an election.” For example, a candidate may simply decide to withdraw his or her candidacy (after proxies have been signed), or a candidate may be elected (in one election) and then, of course, will not be a candidate in any subsequent election.
Using a “ranking proxy” may help avoid some of this confusion. If a chosen candidate is no longer running in an election, the scrutineer simply skips to the next chosen candidate in order, and the same ranking instruction can also apply to each election at the meeting. Of course, adjustments to the proxy form would be required if the signatory’s order of preference is different for each election at the meeting.
The Canadian Condominium Institute (CCI) Ottawa Chapter Seminar, “How to Run an Effective Meeting” will be taking place at the Nepean Sportsplex on Thursday May 23, 2013 at 7:00pm. Nancy Houle of Nelligan O’Brien Payne LLP will be one of the speakers.
This session will cover practical skills that can assist in running a smooth meeting, including topics such as:
- Proper notice
- Registration and use of proxies
- Rules of order, and
- Dealing with contentious issues, etc.
For more details or to register for the seminar, visit the CCI Ottawa website by clicking here.